In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the joining of a woman's egg and a man's sperm in a laboratory dish. In vitro means outside the body. Fertilization means the sperm has attached to and entered the egg.
Intrauterine insemination (IUI) involves a laboratory procedure to separate fast moving sperm from more sluggish or non-moving sperm. The fast moving sperm are then placed into the woman's womb close to the time of ovulation when the egg is released from the ovary in the middle of the monthly cycle.
VO2 max refers to the maximum amount of oxygen that an individual can utilize during intense or maximal exercise. It is measured as "milliliters of oxygen used in one minute per kilogram of body weight." This measurement is generally considered the best indicator of an athlete's cardiovascular fitness and aerobic endurance. Theoretically, the more oxygen you can use during high level exercise, the more ATP (energy) you can produce. This is often the case with elite endurance athletes who typically have very high VO2 max values.
An isokinetic machine allows a sport scientist or physiotherapist to isolate and assess an individual’s strength in a specific muscle or muscle group, joint or movement. By controlling the speed and range of movement, the athlete is comfortably assessed over the full range of movement giving information on peak torque, maximal force and also fatigability at various speeds. Isokinetic assessments are excellent for evaluating muscle imbalances (for example quadriceps to hamstring ratio; left quadriceps versus right quadriceps) as well as monitoring recovery from an injury or operation.
VO2 Sub-Max Testing, also known as oxygen uptake testing, measures the rate at which you consume oxygen in milliliters of oxygen per kilogram of body weight per minute of exercise (or ml/Kg/min). This test is the ultimate measure of fitness and offers a wealth of information including overall cardiovascular fitness level, personal target heart rate zones, how many calories you burn in these zones, your anaerobic threshold, and how well your body recovers after exercise.
Body impedance is measured when a small, safe electrical signal is passed through the body, carried by water and fluids. Impedance is greatest in fat tissue, which contains only 10-20% water, while fat-free mass, which contains 70-75% water, allows the signal to pass much more easily. By using the impedance measurements along with a person's height and weight, and body type (gender, age, fitness level), it is possible to calculate the percentage of body fat, fat-free mass, hydration level, and other body composition values. Conventional BIA normally uses underwater weighing as its method of reference.
Using BIA to estimate person's body fat assumes that the body is within normal hydration ranges. When a person is dehydrated, the amount of fat tissue can be overestimated. Factors that can affect hydration include not drinking enough fluids, drinking too much caffeine or alcohol, exercising or eating just before measuring, certain prescription drugs or diuretics, illness, or a woman's menstrual cycle. Measuring under consistent conditions (proper hydration and same time of day) will yield best results with this method.
The objective of the Stability Test is to monitor the development of the athlete's abdominal and lower back muscles. The importance of function of the central core of the body for stabilisation and force generation in all sports activities is being increasingly recognised. ‘Core stability’ is seen as being pivotal for efficient biomechanical function to maximize force generation and minimise joint loads in all types of activities ranging from running to throwing.
CT Scan machine is an X-ray machine used to look at the structure of the body, internal organs and systems vascular or blood vessels. Agent contrast media will be used for the purpose of looking at the structure internal abnormalities body more clearly through the duct injection veins patients.
MRI is 'Magnetic Resonance Imaging' which can help Radiologists in diagnosing the disease. It uses a magnetic field, radio frequency and computer to produce images of internal organs and is independent inspection of radiation.